Archives of Neuroscience

Published by: Kowsar
Uncorrected Proof scheduled for 6 (1)

Ocular and Visual Manifestation of Alzheimer’s Disease: A Literature Review II Part: Clinical Studies

Francesco Raudino 1 , *
Author Information
1 Department of Neurology, Valduce Hospital, Como, Italy
Article information
  • Archives of Neuroscience: In Press (In Press); e74239
  • Published Online: January 13, 2019
  • Article Type: Review Article
  • Received: May 3, 2018
  • Accepted: November 21, 2018
  • DOI: 10.5812/ans.74239

To Cite: Raudino F. Ocular and Visual Manifestation of Alzheimer’s Disease: A Literature Review II Part: Clinical Studies, Arch Neurosci. Online ahead of Print ; In Press(In Press):e74239. doi: 10.5812/ans.74239.

Abstract
Copyright © 2019, Archives of Neuroscience. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/) which permits copy and redistribute the material just in noncommercial usages, provided the original work is properly cited.
1. Context
2. Evidence Acquisition
3. Results
4. Conclusions
Footnotes
References
  • 1. Raudino F. Non-cognitive symptoms and related conditions in the Alzheimer's disease: A literature review. Neurol Sci. 2013;34(8):1275-82. doi: 10.1007/s10072-013-1424-7. [PubMed: 23543394].
  • 2. Bowen M, Edgar DF, Hancock B, Haque S, Shah R, Buchanan S, et al. The prevalence of visual impairment in people with dementia (the PrOVIDe study): A cross-sectional study of people aged 60-89 years with dementia and qualitative exploration of individual, carer and professional perspectives. Health Services and Delivery Research Southampton (UK): NIHR Journals Library; 2016. eng. doi: 10.3310/hsdr04210.
  • 3. Kaeser PF, Ghika J, Borruat FX. Visual signs and symptoms in patients with the visual variant of Alzheimer disease. BMC Ophthalmol. 2015;15:65. doi: 10.1186/s12886-015-0060-9. [PubMed: 26122482]. [PubMed Central: PMC4485862].
  • 4. McKhann G, Drachman D, Folstein M, Katzman R, Price D, Stadlan EM. Clinical diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease: Report of the NINCDS-ADRDA work group under the auspices of department of health and human services task force on Alzheimer's disease. Neurology. 1984;34(7):939-44. [PubMed: 6610841].
  • 5. de Boer C, Mattace-Raso F, van der Steen J, Pel JJ. Mini-mental state examination subscores indicate visuomotor deficits in Alzheimer's disease patients: A cross-sectional study in a Dutch population. Geriatr Gerontol Int. 2014;14(4):880-5. doi: 10.1111/ggi.12183. [PubMed: 24237759].
  • 6. Grunthal E. Zur hirnpathologischen analyse der alzheimerschen krankheit. Psychiatrisch neurologische wochenschrift. 36. Fb&c Limited; 1928. p. 401-7.
  • 7. Snowden JS, Stopford CL, Julien CL, Thompson JC, Davidson Y, Gibbons L, et al. Cognitive phenotypes in Alzheimer's disease and genetic risk. Cortex. 2007;43(7):835-45. [PubMed: 17941342].
  • 8. Lee AG, Martin CO. Neuro-ophthalmic findings in the visual variant of Alzheimer's disease. Ophthalmology. 2004;111(2):376-80. discussion 380-1. doi: 10.1016/S0161-6420(03)00732-2. [PubMed: 15019393].
  • 9. Nestor PJ, Caine D, Fryer TD, Clarke J, Hodges JR. The topography of metabolic deficits in posterior cortical atrophy (the visual variant of Alzheimer's disease) with FDG-PET. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2003;74(11):1521-9. [PubMed: 14617709]. [PubMed Central: PMC1738241].
  • 10. Khan ZU, Martin-Montanez E, Baxter MG. Visual perception and memory systems: From cortex to medial temporal lobe. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2011;68(10):1737-54. doi: 10.1007/s00018-011-0641-6. [PubMed: 21365279].
  • 11. Mentis MJ, Horwitz B, Grady CL, Alexander GE, VanMeter JW, Maisog JM, et al. Visual cortical dysfunction in Alzheimer's disease evaluated with a temporally graded "stress test" during PET. Am J Psychiatry. 1996;153(1):32-40. doi: 10.1176/ajp.153.1.32. [PubMed: 8540589].
  • 12. Teipel SJ, Bokde AL, Born C, Meindl T, Reiser M, Moller HJ, et al. Morphological substrate of face matching in healthy ageing and mild cognitive impairment: A combined MRI-fMRI study. Brain. 2007;130(Pt 7):1745-58. doi: 10.1093/brain/awm117. [PubMed: 17566054].
  • 13. Vannini P, Lehmann C, Dierks T, Jann K, Viitanen M, Wahlund LO, et al. Failure to modulate neural response to increased task demand in mild Alzheimer's disease: fMRI study of visuospatial processing. Neurobiol Dis. 2008;31(3):287-97. doi: 10.1016/j.nbd.2008.04.013. [PubMed: 18619845].
  • 14. Thulborn KR, Martin C, Voyvodic JT. Functional MR imaging using a visually guided saccade paradigm for comparing activation patterns in patients with probable Alzheimer's disease and in cognitively able elderly volunteers. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2000;21(3):524-31. [PubMed: 10730646].
  • 15. Prvulovic D, Hubl D, Sack AT, Melillo L, Maurer K, Frolich L, et al. Functional imaging of visuospatial processing in Alzheimer's disease. Neuroimage. 2002;17(3):1403-14. [PubMed: 12414280].
  • 16. Bokde AL, Lopez-Bayo P, Born C, Dong W, Meindl T, Leinsinger G, et al. Functional abnormalities of the visual processing system in subjects with mild cognitive impairment: An fMRI study. Psychiatry Res. 2008;163(3):248-59. doi: 10.1016/j.pscychresns.2007.08.013. [PubMed: 18672352].
  • 17. Alichniewicz KK, Brunner F, Klunemann HH, Greenlee MW. Neural correlates of saccadic inhibition in healthy elderly and patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment. Front Psychol. 2013;4:467. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2013.00467. [PubMed: 23898312]. [PubMed Central: PMC3721022].
  • 18. Jacobs HI, Gronenschild EH, Evers EA, Ramakers IH, Hofman PA, Backes WH, et al. Visuospatial processing in early Alzheimer's disease: A multimodal neuroimaging study. Cortex. 2015;64:394-406. doi: 10.1016/j.cortex.2012.01.005. [PubMed: 22342463].
  • 19. Nishioka C, Poh C, Sun SW. Diffusion tensor imaging reveals visual pathway damage in patients with mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease. J Alzheimers Dis. 2015;45(1):97-107. doi: 10.3233/JAD-141239. [PubMed: 25537012]. [PubMed Central: PMC4500052].
  • 20. Rahimi J, Milenkovic I, Kovacs GG. Patterns of Tau and alpha-synuclein pathology in the visual system. J Parkinsons Dis. 2015;5(2):333-40. doi: 10.3233/JPD-140485. [PubMed: 25737267].
  • 21. Krasodomska K, Lubinski W, Potemkowski A, Honczarenko K. Pattern electroretinogram (PERG) and pattern visual evoked potential (PVEP) in the early stages of Alzheimer's disease. Doc Ophthalmol. 2010;121(2):111-21. doi: 10.1007/s10633-010-9238-x. [PubMed: 20549299]. [PubMed Central: PMC2941083].
  • 22. Philpot MP, Amin D, Levy R. Visual evoked potentials in Alzheimer's disease: Correlations with age and severity. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol. 1990;77(5):323-9. [PubMed: 1697523].
  • 23. Coburn KL, Arruda JE, Estes KM, Amoss RT. Diagnostic utility of visual evoked potential changes in Alzheimer's disease. J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci. 2003;15(2):175-9. doi: 10.1176/jnp.15.2.175. [PubMed: 12724458].
  • 24. Stothart G, Kazanina N, Naatanen R, Haworth J, Tales A. Early visual evoked potentials and mismatch negativity in Alzheimer's disease and mild cognitive impairment. J Alzheimers Dis. 2015;44(2):397-408. doi: 10.3233/JAD-140930. [PubMed: 25261446].
  • 25. Sartucci F, Borghetti D, Bocci T, Murri L, Orsini P, Porciatti V, et al. Dysfunction of the magnocellular stream in Alzheimer's disease evaluated by pattern electroretinograms and visual evoked potentials. Brain Res Bull. 2010;82(3-4):169-76. doi: 10.1016/j.brainresbull.2010.04.001. [PubMed: 20385208]. [PubMed Central: PMC3227554].
  • 26. Ponomareva NV, Fokin VF, Selesneva ND, Voskresenskaia NI. Possible neurophysiological markers of genetic predisposition to Alzheimer's disease. Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord. 1998;9(5):267-73. doi: 10.1159/000017071. [PubMed: 9701678].
  • 27. Rosengarten B, Paulsen S, Burr O, Kaps M. Effect of ApoE epsilon4 allele on visual evoked potentials and resultant flow coupling in patients with Alzheimer. J Geriatr Psychiatry Neurol. 2010;23(3):165-70. doi: 10.1177/0891988710363711. [PubMed: 20430978].
  • 28. Leinonen H, Lipponen A, Gurevicius K, Tanila H. Normal amplitude of electroretinography and visual evoked potential responses in abetaPP/PS1 mice. J Alzheimers Dis. 2016;51(1):21-6. doi: 10.3233/JAD-150798. [PubMed: 26836173].
  • 29. Velarde C, Perelstein E, Ressmann W, Duffy CJ. Independent deficits of visual word and motion processing in aging and early Alzheimer's disease. J Alzheimers Dis. 2012;31(3):613-21. doi: 10.3233/JAD-2012-112201. [PubMed: 22647256]. [PubMed Central: PMC3732794].
  • 30. Paxton JL, Peavy GM, Jenkins C, Rice VA, Heindel WC, Salmon DP. Deterioration of visual-perceptual organization ability in Alzheimer's disease. Cortex. 2007;43(7):967-75. [PubMed: 17941353].
  • 31. Calderon J, Perry RJ, Erzinclioglu SW, Berrios GE, Dening TR, Hodges JR. Perception, attention, and working memory are disproportionately impaired in dementia with Lewy bodies compared with Alzheimer's disease. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2001;70(2):157-64. [PubMed: 11160462]. [PubMed Central: PMC1737215].
  • 32. Stehli Nguyen A, Chubb C, Jacob Huff F. Visual identification and spatial location in Alzheimer's disease. Brain Cogn. 2003;52(2):155-66. [PubMed: 12821097].
  • 33. Girard B, Berthoz A. From brainstem to cortex: computational models of saccade generation circuitry. Prog Neurobiol. 2005;77(4):215-51. doi: 10.1016/j.pneurobio.2005.11.001. [PubMed: 16343730].
  • 34. Fletcher WA, Sharpe JA. Saccadic eye movement dysfunction in Alzheimer's disease. Ann Neurol. 1986;20(4):464-71. doi: 10.1002/ana.410200405. [PubMed: 3789662].
  • 35. Shafiq-Antonacci R, Maruff P, Masters C, Currie J. Spectrum of saccade system function in Alzheimer disease. Arch Neurol. 2003;60(9):1272-8. doi: 10.1001/archneur.60.9.1272. [PubMed: 12975294].
  • 36. Boxer AL, Garbutt S, Seeley WW, Jafari A, Heuer HW, Mirsky J, et al. Saccade abnormalities in autopsy-confirmed frontotemporal lobar degeneration and Alzheimer disease. Arch Neurol. 2012;69(4):509-17. doi: 10.1001/archneurol.2011.1021. [PubMed: 22491196]. [PubMed Central: PMC3423186].
  • 37. Shakespeare TJ, Kaski D, Yong KX, Paterson RW, Slattery CF, Ryan NS, et al. Abnormalities of fixation, saccade and pursuit in posterior cortical atrophy. Brain. 2015;138(Pt 7):1976-91. doi: 10.1093/brain/awv103. [PubMed: 25895507]. [PubMed Central: PMC4572483].
  • 38. Yang Q, Wang T, Su N, Liu Y, Xiao S, Kapoula Z. Long latency and high variability in accuracy-speed of prosaccades in Alzheimer's disease at mild to moderate stage. Dement Geriatr Cogn Dis Extra. 2011;1(1):318-29. doi: 10.1159/000333080. [PubMed: 22203824]. [PubMed Central: PMC3246280].
  • 39. Fletcher WA, Sharpe JA. Smooth pursuit dysfunction in Alzheimer's disease. Neurology. 1988;38(2):272-7. [PubMed: 3340292].
  • 40. Fernandez G, Mandolesi P, Rotstein NP, Colombo O, Agamennoni O, Politi LE. Eye movement alterations during reading in patients with early Alzheimer disease. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2013;54(13):8345-52. doi: 10.1167/iovs.13-12877. [PubMed: 24282223].
  • 41. Garbutt S, Matlin A, Hellmuth J, Schenk AK, Johnson JK, Rosen H, et al. Oculomotor function in frontotemporal lobar degeneration, related disorders and Alzheimer's disease. Brain. 2008;131(Pt 5):1268-81. doi: 10.1093/brain/awn047. [PubMed: 18362099]. [PubMed Central: PMC2367697].
  • 42. Abel LA, Unverzagt F, Yee RD. Effects of stimulus predictability and interstimulus gap on saccades in Alzheimer's disease. Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord. 2002;13(4):235-43. doi: 10.1159/000057702. [PubMed: 12006734].
  • 43. Crawford TJ, Higham S, Renvoize T, Patel J, Dale M, Suriya A, et al. Inhibitory control of saccadic eye movements and cognitive impairment in Alzheimer's disease. Biol Psychiatry. 2005;57(9):1052-60. doi: 10.1016/j.biopsych.2005.01.017. [PubMed: 15860346].
  • 44. Heuer HW, Mirsky JB, Kong EL, Dickerson BC, Miller BL, Kramer JH, et al. Antisaccade task reflects cortical involvement in mild cognitive impairment. Neurology. 2013;81(14):1235-43. doi: 10.1212/WNL.0b013e3182a6cbfe. [PubMed: 23986300]. [PubMed Central: PMC3795604].
  • 45. Peltsch A, Hemraj A, Garcia A, Munoz DP. Saccade deficits in amnestic mild cognitive impairment resemble mild Alzheimer's disease. Eur J Neurosci. 2014;39(11):2000-13. doi: 10.1111/ejn.12617. [PubMed: 24890471].
  • 46. Crawford TJ, Higham S, Mayes J, Dale M, Shaunak S, Lekwuwa G. The role of working memory and attentional disengagement on inhibitory control: Effects of aging and Alzheimer's disease. Age (Dordr). 2013;35(5):1637-50. doi: 10.1007/s11357-012-9466-y. [PubMed: 22903189]. [PubMed Central: PMC3776119].
  • 47. Kaufman LD, Pratt J, Levine B, Black SE. Executive deficits detected in mild Alzheimer's disease using the antisaccade task. Brain Behav. 2012;2(1):15-21. doi: 10.1002/brb3.28. [PubMed: 22574270]. [PubMed Central: PMC3343295].
  • 48. Viskontas IV, Boxer AL, Fesenko J, Matlin A, Heuer HW, Mirsky J, et al. Visual search patterns in semantic dementia show paradoxical facilitation of binding processes. Neuropsychologia. 2011;49(3):468-78. doi: 10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2010.12.039. [PubMed: 21215762]. [PubMed Central: PMC3046767].
  • 49. Daffner KR, Scinto LF, Weintraub S, Guinessey JE, Mesulam MM. Diminished curiosity in patients with probable Alzheimer's disease as measured by exploratory eye movements. Neurology. 1992;42(2):320-8. [PubMed: 1736159].
  • 50. Scinto LF, Daffner KR, Dressler D, Ransil BI, Rentz D, Weintraub S, et al. A potential noninvasive neurobiological test for Alzheimer's disease. Science. 1994;266(5187):1051-4. [PubMed: 7973660].
  • 51. Grunberger J, Linzmayer L, Walter H, Rainer M, Masching A, Pezawas L, et al. Receptor test (pupillary dilatation after application of 0.01% tropicamide solution) and determination of central nervous activation (Fourier analysis of pupillary oscillations) in patients with Alzheimer's disease. Neuropsychobiology. 1999;40(1):40-6. doi: 10.1159/000026595. [PubMed: 10420100].
  • 52. Loupe DN, Newman NJ, Green RC, Lynn MJ, W. Illiams KK , Geis TC, et al. Pupillary response to tropicamide in patients with Alzheimer disease. Ophthalmology. 1996;103(3):495-503. [PubMed: 8600428].
  • 53. Takagi A, Miyao M, Ishihara S, Sakakibara H, Kondo T, Toyoshima H, et al. Sensitive pupil response of early-onset Alzheimer's patients to a dilute mixture of cholinergic antagonist and alpha-Adrenergic stimulant. Environ Health Prev Med. 1999;4(1):49-53. doi: 10.1007/BF02931250. [PubMed: 21432171]. [PubMed Central: PMC2723423].
  • 54. Granholm E, Morris S, Galasko D, Shults C, Rogers E, Vukov B. Tropicamide effects on pupil size and pupillary light reflexes in Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease. Int J Psychophysiol. 2003;47(2):95-115. [PubMed: 12568941].
  • 55. Tales A, Troscianko T, Lush D, Haworth J, Wilcock GK, Butler SR. The pupillary light reflex in aging and Alzheimer's disease. Aging (Milano). 2001;13(6):473-8. [PubMed: 11845975].
  • 56. Fotiou DF, Brozou CG, Haidich AB, Tsiptsios D, Nakou M, Kabitsi A, et al. Pupil reaction to light in Alzheimer's disease: Evaluation of pupil size changes and mobility. Aging Clin Exp Res. 2007;19(5):364-71. [PubMed: 18007114].
  • 57. Lad EM, Mukherjee D, Stinnett SS, Cousins SW, Potter GG, Burke JR, et al. Evaluation of inner retinal layers as biomarkers in mild cognitive impairment to moderate Alzheimer's disease. PLoS One. 2018;13(2). e0192646. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0192646. [PubMed: 29420642]. [PubMed Central: PMC5805310].
  • 58. Liu D, Zhang L, Li Z, Zhang X, Wu Y, Yang H, et al. Thinner changes of the retinal nerve fiber layer in patients with mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease. BMC Neurol. 2015;15:14. doi: 10.1186/s12883-015-0268-6. [PubMed: 25886372]. [PubMed Central: PMC4342899].
  • 59. Gao L, Liu Y, Li X, Bai Q, Liu P. Abnormal retinal nerve fiber layer thickness and macula lutea in patients with mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease. Arch Gerontol Geriatr. 2015;60(1):162-7. doi: 10.1016/j.archger.2014.10.011. [PubMed: 25459918].
  • 60. Kwon JY, Yang JH, Han JS, Kim DG. Analysis of the retinal nerve fiber layer thickness in alzheimer disease and mild cognitive impairment. Korean J Ophthalmol. 2017;31(6):548-56. doi: 10.3341/kjo.2016.0118. [PubMed: 29022297]. [PubMed Central: PMC5726990].
  • 61. Jindahra P, Hedges TR, Mendoza-Santiesteban CE, Plant GT. Optical coherence tomography of the retina: Applications in neurology. Curr Opin Neurol. 2010;23(1):16-23. doi: 10.1097/WCO.0b013e328334e99b. [PubMed: 20009925].
  • 62. Tsilis AG, Tsilidis KK, Pelidou SH, Kitsos G. Systematic review of the association between Alzheimer's disease and chronic glaucoma. Clin Ophthalmol. 2014;8:2095-104. doi: 10.2147/OPTH.S69534. [PubMed: 25342880]. [PubMed Central: PMC4206373].
  • 63. Cesareo M, Martucci A, Ciuffoletti E, Mancino R, Cerulli A, Sorge RP, et al. Association between Alzheimer's disease and glaucoma: A study based on heidelberg retinal tomography and frequency doubling technology perimetry. Front Neurosci. 2015;9:479. doi: 10.3389/fnins.2015.00479. [PubMed: 26733792]. [PubMed Central: PMC4683203].
  • 64. Williams EA, McGuone D, Frosch MP, Hyman BT, Laver N, Stemmer-Rachamimov A. Absence of Alzheimer disease neuropathologic changes in eyes of subjects with Alzheimer disease. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol. 2017;76(5):376-83. doi: 10.1093/jnen/nlx020. [PubMed: 28379416].
  • 65. Giorgio A, Zhang J, Costantino F, De Stefano N, Frezzotti P. Diffuse brain damage in normal tension glaucoma. Hum Brain Mapp. 2018;39(1):532-41. doi: 10.1002/hbm.23862. [PubMed: 29064608].
  • 66. Yoneda S, Hara H, Hirata A, Fukushima M, Inomata Y, Tanihara H. Vitreous fluid levels of beta-amyloid((1-42)) and tau in patients with retinal diseases. Jpn J Ophthalmol. 2005;49(2):106-8. doi: 10.1007/s10384-004-0156-x. [PubMed: 15838725].
  • 67. Berdahl JP, Fautsch MP, Stinnett SS, Allingham RR. Intracranial pressure in primary open angle glaucoma, normal tension glaucoma, and ocular hypertension: A case-control study. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2008;49(12):5412-8. doi: 10.1167/iovs.08-2228. [PubMed: 18719086]. [PubMed Central: PMC2745832].
  • 68. Siaudvytyte L, Januleviciene I, Daveckaite A, Ragauskas A, Bartusis L, Kucinoviene J, et al. Literature review and meta-analysis of translaminar pressure difference in open-angle glaucoma. Eye (Lond). 2015;29(10):1242-50. doi: 10.1038/eye.2015.127. [PubMed: 26183286]. [PubMed Central: PMC4815687].
  • 69. Cerman E, Eraslan M, Cekic O. Age-related macular degeneration and Alzheimer disease. Turk J Med Sci. 2015;45(5):1004-9. [PubMed: 26738339].
  • 70. Frost S, Guymer R, Aung KZ, Macaulay SL, Sohrabi HR, Bourgeat P, et al. Alzheimer's disease and the early signs of age-related macular degeneration. Curr Alzheimer Res. 2016;13(11):1259-66. [PubMed: 27335042].
  • 71. Keenan TD, Goldacre R, Goldacre MJ. Associations between age-related macular degeneration, Alzheimer disease, and dementia: record linkage study of hospital admissions. JAMA Ophthalmol. 2014;132(1):63-8. doi: 10.1001/jamaophthalmol.2013.5696. [PubMed: 24232933].
  • 72. Goldstein LE, Muffat JA, Cherny RA, Moir RD, Ericsson MH, Huang X, et al. Cytosolic beta-amyloid deposition and supranuclear cataracts in lenses from people with Alzheimer's disease. Lancet. 2003;361(9365):1258-65. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(03)12981-9. [PubMed: 12699953].
  • 73. Lai SW, Lin CL, Liao KF. Cataract may be a non-memory feature of Alzheimer's disease in older people. Eur J Epidemiol. 2014;29(6):405-9. doi: 10.1007/s10654-014-9903-6. [PubMed: 24752464].
  • 74. Moncaster JA, Pineda R, Moir RD, Lu S, Burton MA, Ghosh JG, et al. Alzheimer's disease amyloid-beta links lens and brain pathology in Down syndrome. PLoS One. 2010;5(5). e10659. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0010659. [PubMed: 20502642]. [PubMed Central: PMC2873949].
  • 75. Melov S, Wolf N, Strozyk D, Doctrow SR, Bush AI. Mice transgenic for Alzheimer disease beta-amyloid develop lens cataracts that are rescued by antioxidant treatment. Free Radic Biol Med. 2005;38(2):258-61. doi: 10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2004.10.023. [PubMed: 15607908].
  • 76. Ho CY, Troncoso JC, Knox D, Stark W, Eberhart CG. Beta-amyloid, phospho-tau and alpha-synuclein deposits similar to those in the brain are not identified in the eyes of Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease patients. Brain Pathol. 2014;24(1):25-32. doi: 10.1111/bpa.12070. [PubMed: 23714377]. [PubMed Central: PMC3976129].
  • 77. Lai SW, Lin CL, Liao KF, Chang-Ou KC. Increased risk of Parkinson's disease in cataract patients: A population-based cohort study. Parkinsonism Relat Disord. 2015;21(1):68-71. doi: 10.1016/j.parkreldis.2014.11.005. [PubMed: 25466927].
  • 78. Langston JW. The Parkinson's complex: Parkinsonism is just the tip of the iceberg. Ann Neurol. 2006;59(4):591-6. doi: 10.1002/ana.20834. [PubMed: 16566021].
Creative Commons License Except where otherwise noted, this work is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 4.0 International License .
Readers' Comments