Archives of Neuroscience

Published by: Kowsar

The Association Between Low Levels of Serum Vitamin D and the Duration and Severity of Parkinson’s Disease

Alijan Ahmadi Ahangar 1 , 2 , 3 , Payam Saadat 1 , 2 , 3 , * , Karimolah Hajian 4 , 5 and Gaffar Kiapasha 6
Authors Information
1 Mobility Impairment Research Center, Babol University of Medical Sciences, Babol, IR Iran
2 Clinical Research Development Unite of Rouhani Hospital, Babol University of Medical Sciences, Babol, IR Iran
3 Department of Neurology, School of Medicine, Babol University of Medical Sciences, Babol, IR Iran
4 Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Health Research Institute, Babol University of Medical Sciences, Babol, IR Iran
5 Department of Statistic and Epidmiology, School of Medicine, Babol University of Medical Sciences, Babol, IR Iran
6 General Practitioner, Babol University of Medical Sciences, Babol, IR Iran
Article information
  • Archives of Neuroscience: July 2018, 5 (3); e61085
  • Published Online: June 27, 2018
  • Article Type: Research Article
  • Received: August 30, 2017
  • Revised: October 21, 2017
  • Accepted: March 14, 2018
  • DOI: 10.5812/archneurosci.61085

To Cite: Ahmadi Ahangar A, Saadat P, Hajian K, Kiapasha G. The Association Between Low Levels of Serum Vitamin D and the Duration and Severity of Parkinson’s Disease, Arch Neurosci. 2018 ; 5(3):e61085. doi: 10.5812/archneurosci.61085.

Copyright © 2018, Archives of Neuroscience. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License ( which permits copy and redistribute the material just in noncommercial usages, provided the original work is properly cited
1. Background
2. Methods
3. Results
4. Discussion
  • 1. Pringsheim T, Jette N, Frolkis A, Steeves TD. The prevalence of Parkinson's disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Mov Disord. 2014;29(13):1583-90. doi: 10.1002/mds.25945. [PubMed: 24976103].
  • 2. Ross GW, Abbott RD. Living and dying with Parkinson's disease. Mov Disord. 2014;29(13):1571-3. doi: 10.1002/mds.25955. [PubMed: 25044188].
  • 3. Dorsey ER, Constantinescu R, Thompson JP, Biglan KM, Holloway RG, Kieburtz K, et al. Projected number of people with Parkinson disease in the most populous nations, 2005 through 2030. Neurology. 2007;68(5):384-6. doi: 10.1212/01.wnl.0000247740.47667.03. [PubMed: 17082464].
  • 4. Bamford NS, Robinson S, Palmiter RD, Joyce JA, Moore C, Meshul CK. Dopamine modulates release from corticostriatal terminals. J Neurosci. 2004;24(43):9541-52. doi: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.2891-04.2004. [PubMed: 15509741].
  • 5. Zhao YJ, Wee HL, Chan YH, Seah SH, Au WL, Lau PN, et al. Progression of Parkinson's disease as evaluated by Hoehn and Yahr stage transition times. Mov Disord. 2010;25(6):710-6. doi: 10.1002/mds.22875. [PubMed: 20213822].
  • 6. Jankovic J. Parkinson's disease: clinical features and diagnosis. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2008;79(4):368-76. doi: 10.1136/jnnp.2007.131045. [PubMed: 18344392].
  • 7. Connolly BS, Lang AE. Pharmacological treatment of Parkinson disease: a review. JAMA. 2014;311(16):1670-83. doi: 10.1001/jama.2014.3654. [PubMed: 24756517].
  • 8. Ferreira JJ, Katzenschlager R, Bloem BR, Bonuccelli U, Burn D, Deuschl G, et al. Summary of the recommendations of the EFNS/MDS-ES review on therapeutic management of Parkinson's disease. Eur J Neurol. 2013;20(1):5-15. doi: 10.1111/j.1468-1331.2012.03866.x. [PubMed: 23279439].
  • 9. Palacios N, Gao X, McCullough ML, Schwarzschild MA, Shah R, Gapstur S, et al. Caffeine and risk of Parkinson's disease in a large cohort of men and women. Mov Disord. 2012;27(10):1276-82. doi: 10.1002/mds.25076. [PubMed: 22927157]. [PubMed Central: PMC3554265].
  • 10. Rees K, Stowe R, Patel S, Ives N, Breen K, Clarke CE, et al. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs as disease-modifying agents for Parkinson's disease: evidence from observational studies. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2011;(11). CD008454. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD008454.pub2. [PubMed: 22071848].
  • 11. Shih IF, Liew Z, Krause N, Ritz B. Lifetime occupational and leisure time physical activity and risk of Parkinson's disease. Parkinsonism Relat Disord. 2016;28:112-7. doi: 10.1016/j.parkreldis.2016.05.007. [PubMed: 27177695]. [PubMed Central: PMC4914446].
  • 12. Lv Z, Qi H, Wang L, Fan X, Han F, Wang H, et al. Vitamin D status and Parkinson's disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Neurol Sci. 2014;35(11):1723-30. doi: 10.1007/s10072-014-1821-6. [PubMed: 24847960].
  • 13. Shrestha S, Lutsey PL, Alonso A, Huang X, Mosley TH Jr, Chen H. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations in Mid-adulthood and Parkinson's disease risk. Mov Disord. 2016;31(7):972-8. doi: 10.1002/mds.26573. [PubMed: 27090608]. [PubMed Central: PMC4931952].
  • 14. Llewellyn DJ, Lang IA, Langa KM, Muniz-Terrera G, Phillips CL, Cherubini A, et al. Vitamin D and risk of cognitive decline in elderly persons. Arch Intern Med. 2010;170(13):1135-41. doi: 10.1001/archinternmed.2010.173. [PubMed: 20625021]. [PubMed Central: PMC4053858].
  • 15. Forrest KY, Stuhldreher WL. Prevalence and correlates of vitamin D deficiency in US adults. Nutr Res. 2011;31(1):48-54. doi: 10.1016/j.nutres.2010.12.001. [PubMed: 21310306].
  • 16. Harms LR, Burne TH, Eyles DW, McGrath JJ. Vitamin D and the brain. Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2011;25(4):657-69. doi: 10.1016/j.beem.2011.05.009. [PubMed: 21872806].
  • 17. Fernandes de Abreu DA, Eyles D, Feron F. Vitamin D, a neuro-immunomodulator: implications for neurodegenerative and autoimmune diseases. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2009;34 Suppl 1:S265-77. doi: 10.1016/j.psyneuen.2009.05.023. [PubMed: 19545951].
  • 18. Kesby JP, Eyles DW, Burne TH, McGrath JJ. The effects of vitamin D on brain development and adult brain function. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2011;347(1-2):121-7. doi: 10.1016/j.mce.2011.05.014. [PubMed: 21664231].
  • 19. Eyles DW, Feron F, Cui X, Kesby JP, Harms LH, Ko P, et al. Developmental vitamin D deficiency causes abnormal brain development. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2009;34 Suppl 1:S247-57. doi: 10.1016/j.psyneuen.2009.04.015. [PubMed: 19500914].
  • 20. Reichmann H. Clinical criteria for the diagnosis of Parkinson's disease. Neurodegener Dis. 2010;7(5):284-90. doi: 10.1159/000314478. [PubMed: 20616563].
  • 21. Goetz CG, Tilley BC, Shaftman SR, Stebbins GT, Fahn S, Martinez-Martin P, et al. Movement Disorder Society-sponsored revision of the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (MDS-UPDRS): scale presentation and clinimetric testing results. Mov Disord. 2008;23(15):2129-70. doi: 10.1002/mds.22340. [PubMed: 19025984].
  • 22. Newberry SJ, Chung M, Shekelle P. Issues in the Assessment of Vitamin D Status for Clinical, Research, and Public Health Purposes. Advanc Nutrition Int Rev J. 2016;7(1):49A.
  • 23. Petersen MS, Bech S, Christiansen DH, Schmedes AV, Halling J. The role of vitamin D levels and vitamin D receptor polymorphism on Parkinson's disease in the Faroe Islands. Neurosci Lett. 2014;561:74-9. doi: 10.1016/j.neulet.2013.12.053. [PubMed: 24394913].
  • 24. Evatt ML, DeLong MR, Kumari M, Auinger P, McDermott MP, Tangpricha V, et al. High prevalence of hypovitaminosis D status in patients with early Parkinson disease. Arch Neurol. 2011;68(3):314-9. doi: 10.1001/archneurol.2011.30. [PubMed: 21403017].
  • 25. Suzuki M, Yoshioka M, Hashimoto M, Murakami M, Kawasaki K, Noya M, et al. 25-hydroxyvitamin D, vitamin D receptor gene polymorphisms, and severity of Parkinson's disease. Mov Disord. 2012;27(2):264-71. doi: 10.1002/mds.24016. [PubMed: 22213340].
  • 26. Suzuki M, Yoshioka M, Hashimoto M, Murakami M, Noya M, Takahashi D, et al. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of vitamin D supplementation in Parkinson disease. Am J Clin Nutr. 2013;97(5):1004-13. doi: 10.3945/ajcn.112.051664. [PubMed: 23485413].
  • 27. Chen H, Zhang SM, Hernan MA, Willett WC, Ascherio A. Diet and Parkinson's disease: a potential role of dairy products in men. Ann Neurol. 2002;52(6):793-801. doi: 10.1002/ana.10381. [PubMed: 12447934].
  • 28. Knekt P, Kilkkinen A, Rissanen H, Marniemi J, Saaksjarvi K, Heliovaara M. Serum vitamin D and the risk of Parkinson disease. Arch Neurol. 2010;67(7):808-11. doi: 10.1001/archneurol.2010.120. [PubMed: 20625085]. [PubMed Central: PMC3091074].

Featured Image:

Creative Commons License Except where otherwise noted, this work is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 4.0 International License .

Search Relations:



Create Citiation Alert
via Google Reader

Readers' Comments