Archives of Neuroscience

Published by: Kowsar

Cervical Artery Dissection: A Review of the Epidemiology, Pathophysiology, Treatment, and Outcome

Christina A. Blum 1 and Shadi Yaghi 2 , *
Authors Information
1 Department of Neurology, University of Pennsylvania Health System, Stroke Division, Pennsylvania, United States
2 Department of Neurology, Columbia University Medical Center, Stroke Division, New York, United States
Article information
  • Archives of Neuroscience: October 01, 2015, 2 (4); e26670
  • Published Online: October 17, 2015
  • Article Type: Review Article
  • Received: February 7, 2015
  • Revised: June 23, 2015
  • Accepted: August 5, 2015
  • DOI: 10.5812/archneurosci.26670

To Cite: Blum C A, Yaghi S. Cervical Artery Dissection: A Review of the Epidemiology, Pathophysiology, Treatment, and Outcome, Arch Neurosci. 2015 ; 2(4):e26670. doi: 10.5812/archneurosci.26670.

Abstract
Copyright © 2015, Tehran University of Medical Sciences. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/) which permits copy and redistribute the material just in noncommercial usages, provided the original work is properly cited.
1. Context
2. Evidence Acquisition
3. Results
4. Conclusions
Acknowledgements
Footnote
References
  • 1. Giroud M, Fayolle H, Andre N, Dumas R, Becker F, Martin D, et al. Incidence of internal carotid artery dissection in the community of Dijon. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 1994; 57(11): 1443[PubMed]
  • 2. Lee VH, Brown RJ, Mandrekar JN, Mokri B. Incidence and outcome of cervical artery dissection: a population-based study. Neurology. 2006; 67(10): 1809-12[DOI][PubMed]
  • 3. Arnold M, Kappeler L, Georgiadis D, Berthet K, Keserue B, Bousser MG, et al. Gender differences in spontaneous cervical artery dissection. Neurology. 2006; 67(6): 1050-2[DOI][PubMed]
  • 4. Touze E, Gauvrit JY, Moulin T, Meder JF, Bracard S, Mas JL, et al. Risk of stroke and recurrent dissection after a cervical artery dissection: a multicenter study. Neurology. 2003; 61(10): 1347-51[PubMed]
  • 5. Paciaroni M, Georgiadis D, Arnold M, Gandjour J, Keseru B, Fahrni G, et al. Seasonal variability in spontaneous cervical artery dissection. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2006; 77(5): 677-9[DOI][PubMed]
  • 6. Thanvi B, Munshi SK, Dawson SL, Robinson TG. Carotid and vertebral artery dissection syndromes. Postgrad Med J. 2005; 81(956): 383-8[DOI][PubMed]
  • 7. Debette S, Metso T, Pezzini A, Abboud S, Metso A, Leys D, et al. Association of vascular risk factors with cervical artery dissection and ischemic stroke in young adults. Circulation. 2011; 123(14): 1537-44[DOI][PubMed]
  • 8. Artto V, Metso TM, Metso AJ, Putaala J, Haapaniemi E, Wessman M, et al. Migraine with aura is a risk factor for cervical artery dissection: a case-control study. Cerebrovasc Dis. 2010; 30(1): 36-40[DOI][PubMed]
  • 9. Tzourio C, Benslamia L, Guillon B, Aidi S, Bertrand M, Berthet K, et al. Migraine and the risk of cervical artery dissection: a case-control study. Neurology. 2002; 59(3): 435-7[PubMed]
  • 10. Pezzini A, Granella F, Grassi M, Bertolino C, Del Zotto E, Immovilli P, et al. History of migraine and the risk of spontaneous cervical artery dissection. Cephalalgia. 2005; 25(8): 575-80[DOI][PubMed]
  • 11. Gallai V, Caso V, Paciaroni M, Cardaioli G, Arning E, Bottiglieri T, et al. Mild hyperhomocyst(e)inemia: a possible risk factor for cervical artery dissection. Stroke. 2001; 32(3): 714-8[PubMed]
  • 12. Pezzini A, Del Zotto E, Archetti S, Negrini R, Bani P, Albertini A, et al. Plasma homocysteine concentration, C677T MTHFR genotype, and 844ins68bp CBS genotype in young adults with spontaneous cervical artery dissection and atherothrombotic stroke. Stroke. 2002; 33(3): 664-9[PubMed]
  • 13. Benninger DH, Herrmann FR, Georgiadis D, Kretschmer R, Sarikaya H, Schiller A, et al. Increased prevalence of hyperhomocysteinemia in cervical artery dissection causing stroke: a case-control study. Cerebrovasc Dis. 2009; 27(3): 241-6[DOI][PubMed]
  • 14. Guillon B, Berthet K, Benslamia L, Bertrand M, Bousser MG, Tzourio C. Infection and the risk of spontaneous cervical artery dissection: a case-control study. Stroke. 2003; 34(7)-81[DOI][PubMed]
  • 15. Grau AJ, Brandt T, Buggle F, Orberk E, Mytilineos J, Werle E, et al. Association of cervical artery dissection with recent infection. Arch Neurol. 1999; 56(7): 851-6[PubMed]
  • 16. Debette S, Leys D. Cervical-artery dissections: predisposing factors, diagnosis, and outcome. Lancet Neurol. 2009; 8(7): 668-78[DOI][PubMed]
  • 17. Grond-Ginsbach C, Debette S. The association of connective tissue disorders with cervical artery dissections. Curr Mol Med. 2009; 9(2): 210-4[PubMed]
  • 18. Dittrich R, Heidbreder A, Rohsbach D, Schmalhorst J, Nassenstein I, Maintz D, et al. Connective tissue and vascular phenotype in patients with cervical artery dissection. Neurology. 2007; 68(24): 2120-4[DOI][PubMed]
  • 19. Engelter ST, Grond-Ginsbach C, Metso TM, Metso AJ, Kloss M, Debette S, et al. Cervical artery dissection: trauma and other potential mechanical trigger events. Neurology. 2013; 80(21): 1950-7[DOI][PubMed]
  • 20. Schievink WI. Spontaneous dissection of the carotid and vertebral arteries. N Engl J Med. 2001; 344(12): 898-906[DOI][PubMed]
  • 21. Debette S, Compter A, Labeyrie MA, Uyttenboogaart M, Metso TM, Majersik JJ, et al. Epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis, and management of intracranial artery dissection. Lancet Neurol. 2015; 14(6): 640-54[DOI][PubMed]
  • 22. Provenzale JM. MRI and MRA for evaluation of dissection of craniocerebral arteries: lessons from the medical literature. Emerg Radiol. 2009; 16(3): 185-93[DOI][PubMed]
  • 23. Leclerc X, Godefroy O, Salhi A, Lucas C, Leys D, Pruvo JP. Helical CT for the diagnosis of extracranial internal carotid artery dissection. Stroke. 1996; 27(3): 461-6[PubMed]
  • 24. Vertinsky AT, Schwartz NE, Fischbein NJ, Rosenberg J, Albers GW, Zaharchuk G. Comparison of multidetector CT angiography and MR imaging of cervical artery dissection. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2008; 29(9): 1753-60[DOI][PubMed]
  • 25. Benninger DH, Georgiadis D, Gandjour J, Baumgartner RW. Accuracy of color duplex ultrasound diagnosis of spontaneous carotid dissection causing ischemia. Stroke. 2006; 37(2): 377-81[DOI][PubMed]
  • 26. Arnold M, Baumgartner RW, Stapf C, Nedeltchev K, Buffon F, Benninger D, et al. Ultrasound diagnosis of spontaneous carotid dissection with isolated Horner syndrome. Stroke. 2008; 39(1): 82-6[DOI][PubMed]
  • 27. Baumgartner RW, Arnold M, Baumgartner I, Mosso M, Gonner F, Studer A, et al. Carotid dissection with and without ischemic events: local symptoms and cerebral artery findings. Neurology. 2001; 57(5): 827-32[PubMed]
  • 28. Volker W, Dittrich R, Grewe S, Nassenstein I, Csiba L, Herczeg L, et al. The outer arterial wall layers are primarily affected in spontaneous cervical artery dissection. Neurology. 2011; 76(17): 1463-71[DOI][PubMed]
  • 29. Schievink WI, Mokri B, Piepgras DG. Angiographic frequency of saccular intracranial aneurysms in patients with spontaneous cervical artery dissection. J Neurosurg. 1992; 76(1): 62-6[DOI][PubMed]
  • 30. Tzourio C, Cohen A, Lamisse N, Biousse V, Bousser MG. Aortic root dilatation in patients with spontaneous cervical artery dissection. Circulation. 1997; 95(10): 2351-3[PubMed]
  • 31. Barbour PJ, Castaldo JE, Rae-Grant AD, Gee W, Reed J3, Jenny D, et al. Internal carotid artery redundancy is significantly associated with dissection. Stroke. 1994; 25(6): 1201-6[PubMed]
  • 32. Brandt T, Hausser I, Orberk E, Grau A, Hartschuh W, Anton-Lamprecht I, et al. Ultrastructural connective tissue abnormalities in patients with spontaneous cervicocerebral artery dissections. Ann Neurol. 1998; 44(2): 281-5[DOI][PubMed]
  • 33. Brandt T, Orberk E, Weber R, Werner I, Busse O, Muller BT, et al. Pathogenesis of cervical artery dissections: association with connective tissue abnormalities. Neurology. 2001; 57(1): 24-30[PubMed]
  • 34. Benninger DH, Georgiadis D, Kremer C, Studer A, Nedeltchev K, Baumgartner RW. Mechanism of ischemic infarct in spontaneous carotid dissection. Stroke. 2004; 35(2): 482-5[DOI][PubMed]
  • 35. Morel A, Naggara O, Touze E, Raymond J, Mas JL, Meder JF, et al. Mechanism of ischemic infarct in spontaneous cervical artery dissection. Stroke. 2012; 43(5): 1354-61[DOI][PubMed]
  • 36. Naggara O, Morel A, Touze E, Raymond J, Mas JL, Meder JF, et al. Stroke occurrence and patterns are not influenced by the degree of stenosis in cervical artery dissection. Stroke. 2012; 43(4): 1150-2[DOI][PubMed]
  • 37. Kennedy F, Lanfranconi S, Hicks C, Reid J, Gompertz P, Price C, et al. Antiplatelets vs anticoagulation for dissection: CADISS nonrandomized arm and meta-analysis. Neurology. 2012; 79(7): 686-9[DOI][PubMed]
  • 38. Arauz A, Ruiz A, Pacheco G, Rojas P, Rodriguez-Armida M, Cantu C, et al. Aspirin versus anticoagulation in intra- and extracranial vertebral artery dissection. Eur J Neurol. 2013; 20(1): 167-72[DOI][PubMed]
  • 39. Debette S. Pathophysiology and risk factors of cervical artery dissection: what have we learnt from large hospital-based cohorts? Curr Opin Neurol. 2014; 27(1): 20-8[DOI][PubMed]
  • 40. Guillon B, Brunereau L, Biousse V, Djouhri H, Levy C, Bousser MG. Long-term follow-up of aneurysms developed during extracranial internal carotid artery dissection. Neurology. 1999; 53(1): 117-22[PubMed]
  • 41. Schievink WI, Mokri B, O'Fallon WM. Recurrent spontaneous cervical-artery dissection. N Engl J Med. 1994; 330(6): 393-7[DOI][PubMed]
  • 42. Furie KL, Kasner SE, Adams RJ, Albers GW, Bush RL, Fagan SC, et al. Guidelines for the prevention of stroke in patients with stroke or transient ischemic attack: a guideline for healthcare professionals from the american heart association/american stroke association. Stroke. 2011; 42(1): 227-76[DOI][PubMed]
  • 43. Menon R, Kerry S, Norris JW, Markus HS. Treatment of cervical artery dissection: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2008; 79(10): 1122-7[DOI][PubMed]
  • 44. Caprio FZ, Bernstein RA, Alberts MJ, Curran Y, Bergman D, Korutz AW, et al. Efficacy and safety of novel oral anticoagulants in patients with cervical artery dissections. Cerebrovasc Dis. 2014; 38(4): 247-53[DOI][PubMed]
  • 45. Chimowitz MI, Kokkinos J, Strong J, Brown MB, Levine SR, Silliman S, et al. The Warfarin-Aspirin Symptomatic Intracranial Disease Study. Neurology. 1995; 45(8): 1488-93[PubMed]
  • 46. Mohr JP, Thompson JL, Lazar RM, Levin B, Sacco RL, Furie KL, et al. A comparison of warfarin and aspirin for the prevention of recurrent ischemic stroke. N Engl J Med. 2001; 345(20): 1444-51[DOI][PubMed]
  • 47. Gensicke H, Ahlhelm F, Jung S, Hessling A, Traenka C, Goeggel Simonetti B, et al. New ischaemic brain lesions in cervical artery dissection stratified to antiplatelets or anticoagulants. Euro J Neurol. 2015; 22(5): 859
  • 48. Yaghi S, Maalouf N, Keyrouz SG. Cervical artery dissection: risk factors, treatment, and outcome; a 5-year experience from a tertiary care center. Int J Neurosci. 2012; 122(1): 40-4[DOI][PubMed]
  • 49. Lyrer P, Engelter S. Antithrombotic drugs for carotid artery dissection. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2010; (10)[DOI][PubMed]
  • 50. Jauch EC, Saver JL, Adams HJ, Bruno A, Connors JJ, Demaerschalk BM, et al. Guidelines for the early management of patients with acute ischemic stroke: a guideline for healthcare professionals from the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association. Stroke. 2013; 44(3): 870-947[DOI][PubMed]
  • 51. Redekop GJ. Extracranial carotid and vertebral artery dissection: a review. Can J Neurol Sci. 2008; 35(2): 146-52[PubMed]
  • 52. Cadiss trial investigators , Markus HS, Hayter E, Levi C, Feldman A, Venables G, et al. Antiplatelet treatment compared with anticoagulation treatment for cervical artery dissection (CADISS): a randomised trial. Lancet Neurol. 2015; 14(4): 361-7[DOI][PubMed]
Creative Commons License Except where otherwise noted, this work is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 4.0 International License .
Readers' Comments