Archives of Neuroscience

Published by: Kowsar

Deep Brain Stimulation of Thalamic Nuclei for Treatment of Intractable Epilepsy

Nasrin Mehranfard 1 , Seyed Shahabeddin Sadr 2 , * , Gholam Hossein Meftahi 3 , Zahra Bahari 4 , Maedeh Ghasemi 5 , Leila Farsi 2 , 6 and Zeinab Naghshband 2
Authors Information
1 Department of Physiology, Paramedical Sciences Faculty, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran
2 Electrophysiology Research Center, Neuroscience Institute, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran
3 Neuroscience Research Center, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran
4 Department of Neurophysiology, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran
5 Department of Physiology, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, IR Iran
6 Brain and Spinal Cord Injury Research Center, Neuroscience Institute, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran
Article information
  • Archives of Neuroscience: July 01, 2015, 2 (3); e22285
  • Published Online: July 20, 2015
  • Article Type: Review Article
  • Received: July 24, 2014
  • Revised: November 14, 2014
  • Accepted: December 20, 2014
  • DOI: 10.5812/archneurosci.22285

To Cite: Mehranfard N, Sadr S S, Meftahi G H, Bahari Z, Ghasemi M, et al. Deep Brain Stimulation of Thalamic Nuclei for Treatment of Intractable Epilepsy, Arch Neurosci. 2015 ; 2(3):e22285. doi: 10.5812/archneurosci.22285.

Copyright © 2015, Tehran University of Medical Sciences. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License ( which permits copy and redistribute the material just in noncommercial usages, provided the original work is properly cited.
1. Context
2. Evidence Acquisition
3. Results
4. Conclusions
  • 1. Hauser WA, Annegers JF, Kurland LT. Incidence of Epilepsy and Unprovoked Seizures in Rochester, Minnesota: 1935-1984. Epilepsia. 1993; 34(3): 453-8[DOI]
  • 2. Kwan P, Arzimanoglou A, Berg AT, Brodie MJ, Allen Hauser W, Mathern G, et al. Definition of drug resistant epilepsy: consensus proposal by the ad hoc Task Force of the ILAE Commission on Therapeutic Strategies. Epilepsia. 2010; 51(6): 1069-77[DOI][PubMed]
  • 3. Burn DJ, Troster AI. Neuropsychiatric complications of medical and surgical therapies for Parkinson's disease. J Geriatr Psychiatry Neurol. 2004; 17(3): 172-80[DOI][PubMed]
  • 4. Blumenfeld H. From molecules to networks: cortical/subcortical interactions in the pathophysiology of idiopathic generalized epilepsy. Epilepsia. 2003; 44 Suppl 2: 7-15[PubMed]
  • 5. Mulley JC, Scheffer IE, Petrou S, Berkovic SF. Channelopathies as a genetic cause of epilepsy. Curr Opin Neurol. 2003; 16(2): 171-6[DOI][PubMed]
  • 6. Engel J, Pedley TA. Epilepsy: A Comprehensive Textbook. 1998;
  • 7. Proposal for Revised Classification of Epilepsies and Epileptic Syndromes. Epilepsia. 1989; 30(4): 389-99[DOI]
  • 8. Benbadis SR. Epileptic seizures and syndromes. Neurol Clin. 2001; 19(2): 251-70[DOI]
  • 9. Panayiotopoulos CP. Epilepsy: A Comprehensive Textbook. 1998; : 2327-46
  • 10. Herman ST. Epilepsy after brain insult: Targeting epileptogenesis. Neurol. 2002; 59-6[DOI]
  • 11. Vadlamudi L, Scheffer IE, Berkovic SF. Genetics of temporal lobe epilepsy. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2003; 74(10): 1359-61[PubMed]
  • 12. Chang BS, Lowenstein DH. Epilepsy. N Engl J Med. 2003; 349(13): 1257-66[DOI][PubMed]
  • 13. Cavdar S, Onat FY, Cakmak YO, Yananli HR, Gulcebi M, Aker R. The pathways connecting the hippocampal formation, the thalamic reuniens nucleus and the thalamic reticular nucleus in the rat. J Anat. 2008; 212(3): 249-56[DOI][PubMed]
  • 14. Van der Werf YD, Witter MP, Groenewegen HJ. The intralaminar and midline nuclei of the thalamus. Anatomical and functional evidence for participation in processes of arousal and awareness. Brain Res Rev. 2002; 39(2-3): 107-40[DOI]
  • 15. Sherman SM, Guillery RW. Exploring the Thalamus. 2001;
  • 16. de Biasi S, Frassoni C, Spreafico R. GABA immunoreactivity in the thalamic reticular nucleus of the rat. A light and electron microscopical study. Brain Res. 1986; 399(1): 143-7[DOI]
  • 17. Houser CR, Vaughn JE, Barber RP, Roberts E. GABA neurons are the major cell type of the nucleus reticularis thalami. Brain Res. 1980; 200(2): 341-54[DOI]
  • 18. Mirski MA, Ferrendelli JA. Anterior thalamic mediation of generalized pentylenetetrazol seizures. Brain Res. 1986; 399(2): 212-23[DOI]
  • 19. Bokor H, Frere SG, Eyre MD, Slezia A, Ulbert I, Luthi A, et al. Selective GABAergic control of higher-order thalamic relays. Neuron. 2005; 45(6): 929-40[DOI][PubMed]
  • 20. Bartho P, Freund TF, Acsady L. Selective GABAergic innervation of thalamic nuclei from zona incerta. Eur J Neurosci. 2002; 16(6): 999-1014[DOI]
  • 21. Guye M, Regis J, Tamura M, Wendling F, McGonigal A, Chauvel P, et al. The role of corticothalamic coupling in human temporal lobe epilepsy. Brain. 2006; 129: 1917-28[DOI][PubMed]
  • 22. Bertram EH, Mangan PS, Zhang D, Scott CA, Williamson JM. The midline thalamus: alterations and a potential role in limbic epilepsy. Epilepsia. 2001; 42(8): 967-78[PubMed]
  • 23. Bertram EH, Zhang D, Williamson JM. Multiple roles of midline dorsal thalamic nuclei in induction and spread of limbic seizures. Epilepsia. 2008; 49(2): 256-68[DOI][PubMed]
  • 24. Li Y-H, Li J-J, Lu Q-C, Gong H-Q, Liang P-J, Zhang P-M. Involvement of Thalamus in Initiation of Epileptic Seizures Induced by Pilocarpine in Mice. Neural Plast. 2014; 2014
  • 25. Gloor P, Fariello RG. Generalized epilepsy: some of its cellular mechanisms differ from those of focal epilepsy. Trends Neurosci. 1988; 11(2): 63-8
  • 26. Vergnes M, Marescaux C, Depaulis A, Micheletti G, Warter JM. Spontaneous spike and wave discharges in thalamus and cortex in a rat model of genetic petit mal-like seizures. Exp Neurol. 1987; 96(1): 127-36[DOI]
  • 27. Niedermeyer E, Laws ER, Walker AE. Depth EEG Findings in Epileptics With Generalized Spike-Wave Complexes. Arch Neurol. 1969; 21(1): 51-8[DOI]
  • 28. Tyvaert L, Chassagnon S, Sadikot A, LeVan P, Dubeau F, Gotman J. Thalamic nuclei activity in idiopathic generalized epilepsy: an EEG-fMRI study. Neurology. 2009; 73(23): 2018-22[DOI][PubMed]
  • 29. Miller JW, Ferrendelli JA. The central medial nucleus: thalamic site of seizure regulation. Brain Res. 1990; 508(2): 297-300[DOI]
  • 30. Nguyen DK, Podubnaia AB, Carmant L, Guilbert F, Cossette P. Generalized epilepsy and classic spike-wave discharges with unilateral thalamic lesions. Arch Neurol. 2006; 63(9): 1321-3[DOI][PubMed]
  • 31. Jensen AL, Durand DM. Suppression of axonal conduction by sinusoidal stimulation in rat hippocampus in vitro. J Neural Eng. 2007; 4(2): 1-16[DOI][PubMed]
  • 32. Lian J, Bikson M, Sciortino C, Stacey WC, Durand DM. Local suppression of epileptiform activity by electrical stimulation in rat hippocampus in vitro. J Physiol. 2003; 547: 427-34[DOI][PubMed]
  • 33. Mirski MA, McKeon AC, Ferrendelli JA. Anterior thalamus and substantia nigra: two distinct structures mediating experimental generalized seizures. Brain Res. 1986; 397(2): 377-80[DOI]
  • 34. Nishida N, Huang ZL, Mikuni N, Miura Y, Urade Y, Hashimoto N. Deep brain stimulation of the posterior hypothalamus activates the histaminergic system to exert antiepileptic effect in rat pentylenetetrazol model. Exp Neurol. 2007; 205(1): 132-44[DOI][PubMed]
  • 35. Shi LH, Luo F, Woodward D, Chang JY. Deep brain stimulation of the substantia nigra pars reticulata exerts long lasting suppression of amygdala-kindled seizures. Brain Res. 2006; 1090(1): 202-7[DOI][PubMed]
  • 36. Usui N, Maesawa S, Kajita Y, Endo O, Takebayashi S, Yoshida J. Suppression of secondary generalization of limbic seizures by stimulation of subthalamic nucleus in rats. J Neurosurg. 2005; 102(6): 1122-9[DOI][PubMed]
  • 37. Ziai WC, Sherman DL, Bhardwaj A, Zhang N, Keyl PM, Mirski MA. Target-specific catecholamine elevation induced by anticonvulsant thalamic deep brain stimulation. Epilepsia. 2005; 46(6): 878-88[DOI][PubMed]
  • 38. Lado FA, Velíšek L, Moshé SL. The Effect of Electrical Stimulation of the Subthalamic Nucleus on Seizures Is FrequencyDependent. Epilepsia. 2003; 44(2): 157-64[DOI]
  • 39. Hamani C, Ewerton FIS, Bonilha SM, Ballester G, Mello LEAM, Lozano AM. Bilateral Anterior Thalamic Nucleus Lesions and High-frequency Stimulation Are Protective against Pilocarpine-induced Seizures and Status Epilepticus. Neurosurg. 2004; 54(1): 191-7[DOI]
  • 40. Jou SB, Kao IF, Yi PL, Chang FC. Electrical stimulation of left anterior thalamic nucleus with high-frequency and low-intensity currents reduces the rate of pilocarpine-induced epilepsy in rats. Seizure. 2013; 22(3): 221-9[DOI][PubMed]
  • 41. Osorio I, Overman J, Giftakis J, Wilkinson SB. High frequency thalamic stimulation for inoperable mesial temporal epilepsy. Epilepsia. 2007; 48(8): 1561-71[DOI][PubMed]
  • 42. Lee KJ, Jang KS, Shon YM. Chronic deep brain stimulation of subthalamic and anterior thalamic nuclei for controlling refractory partial epilepsy. Acta Neurochir Suppl. 2006; 99: 87-91[DOI]
  • 43. Lim SN, Lee ST, Tsai YT, Chen IA, Tu PH, Chen JL, et al. Electrical stimulation of the anterior nucleus of the thalamus for intractable epilepsy: a long-term follow-up study. Epilepsia. 2007; 48(2): 342-7[DOI][PubMed]
  • 44. Hodaie M, Wennberg RA, Dostrovsky JO, Lozano AM. Chronic Anterior Thalamus Stimulation for IntractableEpilepsy. Epilepsia. 2002; 43(6): 603-8[DOI]
  • 45. Kerrigan JF, Litt B, Fisher RS, Cranstoun S, French JA, Blum DE, et al. Electrical stimulation of the anterior nucleus of the thalamus for the treatment of intractable epilepsy. Epilepsia. 2004; 45(4): 346-54[DOI][PubMed]
  • 46. Andrade DM, Zumsteg D, Hamani C, Hodaie M, Sarkissian S, Lozano AM, et al. Long-term follow-up of patients with thalamic deep brain stimulation for epilepsy. Neurology. 2006; 66(10): 1571-3[DOI][PubMed]
  • 47. Upton ARM, Amin I, Garnett S, Springman M, Nahmias C, Cooper IS. Evoked Metabolic Responses in the LimbicStriate System Produced by Stimulation of Anterior Thalamic Nucleus in Man. Pacing Clin Electrophysiology. 1987; 10(1): 217-25[DOI]
  • 48. Jasper HH. Current evaluation of the concepts of centrecephalic and cortico-reticular seizures. Electroencephalography Clin Neurophysiol. 1991; 78(1): 2-11[DOI]
  • 49. Velasco F, Velasco M, Ogarrio C, Fanghanel G. Electrical stimulation of the centromedian thalamic nucleus in the treatment of convulsive seizures: a preliminary report. Epilepsia. 1987; 28(4): 421-30[PubMed]
  • 50. Valentin A, Garcia Navarrete E, Chelvarajah R, Torres C, Navas M, Vico L, et al. Deep brain stimulation of the centromedian thalamic nucleus for the treatment of generalized and frontal epilepsies. Epilepsia. 2013; 54(10): 1823-33[DOI][PubMed]
  • 51. Velasco F, Velasco M, Jimenez F, Velasco AL, Marquez I. Stimulation of the Central Median Thalamic Nucleus for Epilepsy. Stereotactic Functional Neurosurg. 2001; 77(1-4): 228-32[DOI]
  • 52. Velasco AL, Velasco F, Jimenez F, Velasco M, Castro G, Carrillo-Ruiz JD, et al. Neuromodulation of the centromedian thalamic nuclei in the treatment of generalized seizures and the improvement of the quality of life in patients with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome. Epilepsia. 2006; 47(7): 1203-12[DOI][PubMed]
  • 53. Fisher RS, Uematsu S, Krauss GL, Cysyk BJ, McPherson R, Lesser RP, et al. Placebo-controlled pilot study of centromedian thalamic stimulation in treatment of intractable seizures. Epilepsia. 1992; 33(5): 841-51[PubMed]
  • 54. Valentin A, Nguyen HQ, Skupenova AM, Agirre-Arrizubieta Z, Jewell S, Mullatti N, et al. Centromedian thalamic nuclei deep brain stimulation in refractory status epilepticus. Brain Stimul. 2012; 5(4): 594-8[DOI][PubMed]
  • 55. Hamani C, Dubiela FP, Soares JC, Shin D, Bittencourt S, Covolan L, et al. Anterior thalamus deep brain stimulation at high current impairs memory in rats. Exp Neurol. 2010; 225(1): 154-62[DOI][PubMed]
  • 56. Vercueil L, Benazzouz A, Deransart C, Bressand K, Marescaux C, Depaulis A, et al. High-frequency stimulation of the sub-thalamic nucleus suppresses absence seizures in the rat: comparison with neurotoxic lesions. Epilepsy Res. 1998; 31(1): 39-46[DOI]
  • 57. McCormick DA, Contreras D. On the cellular and network bases of epileptic seizures. Annu Rev Physiol. 2001; 63: 815-46[DOI][PubMed]
  • 58. Lee KH, Hitti FL, Shalinsky MH, Kim U, Leiter JC, Roberts DW. Abolition of spindle oscillations and 3-Hz absence seizurelike activity in the thalamus by using high-frequency stimulation: potential mechanism of action. J Neurosurg. 2005; 103(3): 538-45[DOI][PubMed]
  • 59. Anderson T, Hu B, Pittman Q, Kiss ZH. Mechanisms of deep brain stimulation: an intracellular study in rat thalamus. J Physiol. 2004; 559: 301-13[DOI][PubMed]
  • 60. Bekar L, Libionka W, Tian GF, Xu Q, Torres A, Wang X, et al. Adenosine is crucial for deep brain stimulation-mediated attenuation of tremor. Nat Med. 2008; 14(1): 75-80[DOI][PubMed]
  • 61. Lee KH, Chang SY, Roberts DW, Kim U. Neurotransmitter release from high-frequency stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus. J Neurosurg. 2004; 101(3): 511-7[DOI][PubMed]
  • 62. Tawfik VL, Chang SY, Hitti FL, Roberts DW, Leiter JC, Jovanovic S, et al. Deep brain stimulation results in local glutamate and adenosine release: investigation into the role of astrocytes. Neurosurgery. 2010; 67(2): 367-75[DOI][PubMed]
Creative Commons License Except where otherwise noted, this work is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 4.0 International License .

Search Relations:



Create Citiation Alert
via Google Reader

Readers' Comments